evaluation of environmental bacterial contamination and procedures to control cross infection in a sample of italian dental surgeries
Local health unit in Brescia
Lombardy region, Italy)
And evaluate procedures used by personnel to control cross-infection in order to reduce the risk of infection in dental clinics.
Methods 133 dental staff were interviewed and the procedures for controlling infection were investigated by questionnaire.
Autoclave, chemical bath (chemiclaves)
, The oven present in the operation tested the sterilization efficiency by spore testing, and the instruments that had been packaged and sterilized were randomly sampled and tested for sterility.
Microbial contamination of water samples from air, surface and dental units was also studied.
Results dental personnel generally do not operate according to the main procedures for infection control: 30% of the personnel are not vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine, the infected devices are often not disinfected, and there is a lack of regular inspection of the efficiency of the autoclave, incomplete knowledge of disinfection mechanisms and procedures.
High bacterial contamination of water is often found in dental procedures, and the total bacterial count in air samples is high.
Surface studies have shown that bacterial contamination is common.
Based on these results, educational programmes to prevent the risk of infection have been developed and implemented.
The results of this pilot study will be used to plan a national survey.
Materials and methods surgery and personalized surgery are among the most industrialized regions in Italy.
All self-employed dentists (n=62)
In a local health unit in Lombard, 71 nurses working in 51 private dental surgeries participated in this comprehensive project, which is university researchers and Brescia at the University Dental Clinic, health officials in the local health department.
The aim was to use a questionnaire to assess procedures for controlling infection, studying microbial contamination in dental surgery, and testing a autoclave to improve disinfection efficiency.
According to Italian law, the main goal of this study is the owner of dental surgery because they are responsible for the health and safety of the dental staff (No 626, 1994)
And some EU (EU)directives (
89/391/EU, 89/654/EU, 89/656/EU, 90/679/EU).
Unlike the American Dental Association, the Italian Dental Association did not develop a guide to procedures to control infection.
The results obtained were used to establish an educational programme to increase compliance of dental staff involved in the study with the control of infection procedures.
Issue questionnaires to all dental surgeons to analyze the following data :(a)
Personal Data (
Age, occupation duration, etc); (b)
Structure of oral surgery (
Total area, number of rooms, number of operating rooms, type of floor, presence of dental technician laboratory, number of dental units, autoclave, chemical bath (chemiclaves)
And oven, etc ). ; (c)
Instruments, materials and techniques used to prevent the risk of infection in personnel and patients (
Protection system, use of disposable items, procedures for disinfection and disinfection, treatment of contaminated materials, etc); (d)
Events of infection and vaccination of hepatitis B vaccine and other vaccines used.
Air-contaminated bacterial contamination was tested in 51 operations with an air sampler (
Ground Air system SAS at PBI International Airport, Milan, Italy)
And different agar plates (
Doctor of Medicine, Kirkville, beckerton Dickinson
Placed near the assistant, about 1.
5 metres from the patient, the total number of bacteria, fungi, S. and S. was calculated.
Each sampling lasts for 2 minutes at a flow rate of 180 liters/minute, collecting 360 liters of air.
The data is expressed in cfu/m3.
All bacterial analyses were conducted by technicians from the microbiology laboratory of the local health department in Brescia.
Test surface contamination of bacteria with contact plates (
55mm diameter, 24 cm² area)
Each operation is pressed on a cart close to the dental unit to analyze the total number of bacteria, fungi, S. and β-
The data is represented by cfu/24 cm 2.
Bacteria contamination in the water of dental units distributed in 51 dental units was sampled in hoses and airwater syringe (
Several microbial variables were investigated (
Total number of bacteria at 22 °c and 37 °c, total coliform bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, strep, bisulic acid-reducing shuttle bacteria, coliform bacteria, Staphylococcus, Legion bacteria and P. .
The total number of 35 bacteria at 22 °c and 37 °c is expressed as cfu/ml and is targeted with the American Dental Association (